Volume 8, Issue 1, April 2011


Romanization of Native Languages in Email and Mobile Phone Text: Case Study of Bangla [Full Text]

Shahriar Khan

Abstract— In response to the need for rapid written communication with computers and mobile phones, many of the native scripts of the world are being replaced by the common English script. A new form of languages written with the English/Latin script is emerging, otherwise known as romanization.. These romanized native languages are gaining popularity through email, mobile phone SMS, computer chat, and social networking websites. The younger generation, who are the major practitioners of Romanization, are spelling native words at their own convenience. With all this intercommunication, certain spelling standards are emerging, that are agreeable to all. With its complex script, Bangla has been especially romanized by the internet and mobile phone generations. Today, much romanized Bangla is seen in email, internet chatrooms, and in mobile text messages. The various user groups, such as the government and commercial organizations, and mobile text and computer users, are having an effect on each other, and leading to convergence towards common spelling standards. From a survey of existing practices, patterns and trends in Romanized Bangla were observed. Already, about 50 % of the words have converged to common standards, with more to follow soon. As most users are unfamiliar with English pronunciations, romanized Bangla does not follow the phonetics of English spellings. The trends in the spelling can be partially influenced through commercial spell checkers. A preliminary comparison with romanized Hindi/Urdu showed that Bangla and Hindi/Urdu were evolving with different pronunciations for the same letter combinations.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Design of a Planar Monopole Antenna with a Band Notch Function
[Full Text]

Y. Zehforoosh, R.A. Sadegzadeh and M.Jalali

Abstract—
This paper presents a planar microstrip-fed modified triangular monopole antenna for ultra-wideband (UWB) wireless communications applications. The impedance bandwidth of the antenna is improved by employing a tapered ground-plane. A slot is embedded in the radiating patch to provide the required notch function to eliminate interfering WLAN signals. Numerical analysis is presented on the effect of the antenna’s parameters to its performance. The proposed antenna prototype has a relatively small size of 30 × 32mm2, and exhibits an ultra-wideband performance from 2.37 to 14.11 GHz with a low VSWR and good radiation characteristics. These characteristics satisfy the requirements for existing and future wireless communications systems.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Frequency Assignment for Cellular Mobile Systems Using a Hybrid Tabu search
[Full Text]

Jamal Elhachmi and Zouhair Guenoun

Abstract—
This paper presents a new algorithm for solving the frequency assignment problem in cellular mobile systems. The proposed algorithm is based on a Taboo search starting with a sequential local search method. Instead of using a minimum number of frequencies and reusing them a maximum number of times, our algorithm assembles to maximum the frequencies while avoiding deadlock. This algorithm introduces a powerful sequential local search method to start with an initial solution respecting all constraints, and minimizing the costs of employment. This initial solution is used to construct a global solution by
permutation of all frequencies of a constraint link in its frequency domain in order to obtain the smallest maximum frequency used and the overall cost of such a solution. The algorithm reduces both the search space, the order of variables and values and avoids cycles through by the use of a temporary Taboo list. Our approach has been tested on standard benchmark problems called Philadelphia benchmarks of frequency assignment problem. The results obtained are equivalent to those of current methods. Moreover, our approach shows more efficiency in terms of flexibility and autonomy.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Analytical Analysis of Multimedia Mobile Networks
[Full Text]

Mohammad Shahidul Islam

Abstract—
Cellular networks provide additional multimedia services, besides the traditional voice service. The introduction of multimedia services to cellular networks creates new problems for the design of such systems. We need to provide certain QoS for the offered multimedia services. In multimedia mobile IP networks one may expect different bandwidth demands by different traffic classes. Also, different classes have different traffic parameters, such as new call intensity and call/session duration. This paper addresses problems that arise from the increasing demand of multimedia services and we derive an analytical model for single-class mobile networks.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Secure Data Transmission over GSM Voice
[Full Text]

Ms. Shama S.Ostwal and Dr. R.S.Kawitkar

Abstract -
There are various types of applications demands the data has to be transmitted from one location to another location. If the data channels of Mobile are not available then now they can be transmitted over voice securely. Data channels of Global System Mobile are GPRS, EDGE and HSDPA. But these channels required specific infrastructure present on the Telecom Tower. As the India has more than 70% rural area, people in this area uses only voice channel in the mobile so it is not cost effective for the Telecom companies to have data channel infrastructure in the Telecom Tower. When such condition arises then the data has to be transmitted over the Voice channel and the technology explained over here describes a real time prototype implementation of a system, which enables data communication over the Global System Mobile voice using Advance Encryption Standards (AES). The proposed system first undergoes from a Pre-Processing Unit which modifies the encrypted serial digital data to parallel. Then the microcontroller has the Code Book which helps in modulating the digital data onto speech-like waveforms by Data to Speech Modulator. The modulated waveforms are then transmitted over the GSM voice channel, which can be demodulated at the receiver. Demodulated data is again converted back to binary using another Code
Book. Then the received data can be decrypted to find the original information. The real time prototype system will be tested on GSM to GSM voice calls, and a modulator and demodulator is used on the real time data channel to produce communication quality speech.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Sectorization of Kekre’s Transform for Image Retrieval in Content Based Image Retrieval [Full Text]

H.B.Kekre and Dhirendra Mishra


Abstract - This paper presents the application of idea of plane sectorization to provide the better algorithm for Content based image retrieval. The proposed algorithm of sectorization has been applied on transformed color digital images using Kekre’s transform. Transformation of the image is worked on both ways i.e. column wise and row wise. The plane prepared for the sectorization has even rows/columns on one axis and odd rows/columns on another axis of Cartesian coordinate system. The plane formed with these even/odd; row /column arrangement has been sectored into 4,8,12 and 16 sectors separately. Sectoring the plane in different sizes provides us with feature vectors of different sizes. The feature vectors of different size are tested with augmentation and without augmentation of extra components of zeroth and last row/column. The size of feature vectors and augmentation definitely affects the retrieval result in CBIR. The algorithm proposed has been tested along with the variation in the distance measuring methods like Euclidean distance and sum of absolute difference. The performance is evaluated using plot of precision-recall cross over points and LIRS (Length of initial relevant strings), LSRR (Length of string to recover all relevant images). Image retrieval performance needs to be tested on large image database; hence the proposed work has been experimented on the augmented Wang image database consist of 1055 digital images having 12 different classes.